Physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in broiler chickens of a new recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate

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Abstract

Enrofloxacin, a key antimicrobial agent in commercial avian medicine, has limited bioavailability (60%). This prompted its chemical manipulation to yield a new solvate-recrystallized enrofloxacin hydrochloride dihydrate entity (enroC). Its chemical structure was characterized by means of mass spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermal analysis. Comparative oral pharmacokinetics (PK) of reference enrofloxacin (enroR) and enroC in broiler chickens after oral administration revealed noticeable improvements in key parameters and PK/PD ratios. Maximum serum concentration values were 2.61 ± 0.21 and 5.9 ± 0.42 μg/mL for enroR and enroC, respectively; mean residence time was increased from 5.50 ± 0.26 h to 6.20 ± 0.71 h and the relative bioavailability of enroC was 336%. Considering Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios and the MIC values for a wild-type Escherichia coli O78/H12 (0.25 μg/mL), optimal ratios will only be achieved by enroC (Cmax/MIC = 23.6 and AUC/MIC = 197.7 for enroC; vs. Cmax/MIC = 10.4 and AUC/MIC = 78.1 for enroR). Furthermore, enroC may provide in most cases mutant prevention concentrations (Cmax/MIC ≥ 16). Ready solubility of powder enroC in drinking water at concentrations regularly used (0.01%) to provide an additional advantage of enroC in the field. Further development of enroC is warranted before it can be recommended for clinical use in veterinary medicine.

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