Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of oral amitriptyline and its active metabolite nortriptyline in fed and fasted Greyhound dogs

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Abstract

This study reports the pharmacokinetics of oral amitriptyline and its active metabolite nortriptyline in Greyhound dogs. Five healthy Greyhound dogs were enrolled in a randomized crossover design. A single oral dose of amitriptyline hydrochloride (actual mean dose 8.1 per kg) was administered to fasted or fed dogs. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma drug concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Two dogs in the fasted group vomited following amitriptyline administration and were excluded from analysis. The range of amitriptyline CMAX for the remaining fasted dogs (n = 3) was 22.8–64.5 ng/mL compared to 30.6–127 ng/mL for the fed dogs (n = 5). The range of the amitriptyline AUCINF for the three fasted dogs was 167–720 h·ng/mL compared to 287–1146 h·ng/mL for fed dogs. The relative bioavailability of amitriptyline in fasted dogs compared to fed dogs was 69–91% (n = 3). The exposure of the active metabolite nortriptyline was correlated to amitriptyline exposure (R2 = 0.84). Due to pharmacokinetic variability and the small number of dogs completing this study, further studies are needed assessing the impact of feeding on oral amitriptyline pharmacokinetics. Amitriptyline may be more likely to cause vomiting in fasted dogs.

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