Data are presented on the effects that cork, blue gum, or maritime pine, all grown in Portugal, have on cement setting. These materials were mixed with cement either without any treatment or after being extracted previously with a range of solvents (ranging from nonpolar to very polar). Other experiments were carried out in which extractives or calcium chloride were added to the cement paste. All lignocellulosic substrates have detrimental effects on cement setting, which is mostly seen by a delay in attaining the maximum temperature in the process. However, the addition of calcium chloride was able to overcome this disadvantage. Extraction of the substrates with some polar extraction agents before addition to the cement paste only slightly improved compatibility, and the addition of water-based extractives to a cement paste affects the setting much less than the lignocellulosic material by itself. Several thermal compatibility indices, including a new index proposed in this article, were calculated from data taken from temperature profiles, and conclusions are presented on the performance of the setting systems, as compared with a neat cement paste. In addition, comments are expressed on the level of accuracy offered by the indices applied in this study, and how such accuracy can be checked or improved by matching them to the physical properties of the wood-cement composites.