Comparison of different extraction methods and HPLC quantification of prenylated and unprenylated phenylpropanoids in raw Italian propolis

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Abstract

In this paper the presence of selected prenylated and unprenylated phenylpropanoids, namely ferulic acid 1, boropinic acid 2, 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid 3, umbelliferone 4, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin 5, and auraptene 6, have been determined in Italian raw propolis after having been extracted with different methodologies. An aqueous solution of β-cyclodextrin was the best extraction method for ferulic acid 1, treatment with indifferently EtOH or aqueous β-cyclodextrin were the most effective one for umbelliferone 4, boropinic acid 2 gave the best yields either with H2O/β-cyclodextrin or olive oil treatment or in biphasic systems, maceration with biphasic mixtures of aqueous β-cyclodextrin and olive oil was seen to be the most effective procedure for 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin 5, the only method providing significant quantities of 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid 3 was the maceration of raw propolis with olive oil, and finally auraptene 4 was best extracted with absolute EtOH. “Classic” maceration in general performed better than ultrasound-assisted one.

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