Circulating levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their expression patterns are supposed to serve as signatures for diagnosis or prognosis of cardiovascular events. The present study aimed at determining if there is any correlation between the release pattern of 2 miRNAs and the plasma levels of conventional biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK) and uric acid (UA) in patients undergoing their first off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OCABG). Seventy OCABG patients (69% men, aged 59.2 ± 8.2 years) were enrolled. Emergencies, re-operations, abnormal preoperative serum cTnI and combined procedures were excluded from this study. Pre-operative mean ejection fraction was 45.8 ± 8.6%, the average number of grafts was 3 ± 0.87/patient, and the internal mammary artery was used for all. Beside conventional clinical assays, we performed real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the circulating levels of miR-155, miR-126 and miR-499 at 1 day before surgery as well as 4 days after surgery. Importantly, there was no report of myocardial infarction in our patients, pre- or post-operatively. In contrast to conventional biomarkers cTnI and CK, circulating levels of miRNAs decreased significantly (P < 0.01) after revascularization surgery. A significant positive correlation was seen between the cTnI and miR-499 (r ˜ 0.53, P < 0.01) and between miR-126 and UA (r ˜ 0.5, P < 0.01). Time course study of circulating miR-499, miR-126 and miR-155 in cardiac surgery clarified their advantage and correlations to the traditional biomarkers cTnI, total CK, CK-MB and UA. Our results suggest that this signature is a novel, early biomarker which indicates myocardial ischemia in cardiac surgery. It could be postulated that the application of these miRNAs may be considered for monitoring of response to pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing cardiac ischemia, especially in OCABG candidates.