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NIR spectroscopy was applied for prediction of allopurinol dissolution rate.PLS algorithm enabled quantitative evaluation of the drug release.PCA algorithm provided additional information about the product status.A tentative assignment of the vibrational bands in tablet spectrum was given.The purpose of this study was to develop a NIR spectroscopic method for assessment of drug dissolution from allopurinol immediate release tablets. Thirty three different batches of allopurinol immediate release tablets containing constant amount of the active ingredient, but varying in excipients content and physical properties were introduced in a PLS calibration model. Correlating allopurinol dissolution reference values measured by the routinely used UV/Vis method, with the data extracted from the NIR spectra, values of correlation coefficient, bias, slope, residual prediction determination and root mean square error of prediction (0.9632, 0.328%, 1.001, 3.58, 3.75%) were evaluated. The obtained values implied that the NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy could serve as a faster and simpler alternative to the conventional dissolution procedure, even for the tablets with a very fast dissolution rate (>85% in 15 minutes). Apart from the possibility of prediction of the allopurinol dissolution rate, the other multivariate technique, PCA, provided additional data on the non-chemical characteristics of the product, which could not be obtained from the reference dissolution values. Analysis on an independent set of samples confirmed that a difference between the UV/Vis reference method and the proposed NIR method was not significant. According to the presented results, the proposed NIR method may be suitable for practical application in routine analysis and for continuously monitoring the product's chemical and physical properties responsible for expected quality.