Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents

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Graphical abstractHighlightsDES was tailor-made for efficiently extraction target compounds from Fig leaves.The tailor-made DES exhibit enhanced extraction yield for target compounds than traditional solvent.The tailor-made DES based microwave assist extraction process was optimized.The developed determination method was efficient and green.The target compounds in the tailor-made DES were efficiently recovered.Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(−)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482 mg/g, 16.34 mg/g, 5.207 mg/g, 15.22 mg/g and 2.475 mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g

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