Dan-Deng-Tong-Nao capsule (DDTN) was a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, and has been widely used for the treatment of stroke clinically which caused by blood stasis. However, the bioactive substances and mechanism are unclear because of the complex compositions in DDTN. In this research, An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadruple-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap MS) method was utilized to identify the chemical constituents of DDTN. In total, 102 compounds including diterpenes, lactones, flavonoids, and phenolic acids were identified by the accurate masses and fragmentation pathways, and 18 of them were unambiguously determined by comparison of reference standards. Besides, 12 representative compounds were simultaneously quantification analyzed and successfully applified for detecting in 9 batches of DDTN samples by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS in parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode. The proposed approach was validated to be satisfied in terms of linearity (0.9954–0.9999), LOD (0.771 ng/mL), LOQ (2.568 ng/mL), intra-day precision (<2.68%), inter-day precision (<4.52%), repeatability (<2.96%), stability (<3.21%), and recovery (94.6–105.5%). The results indicate that the method of combining UHPLC with Q-Orbitrap MS is practical and efficient for the chemical clarification in DDTN, and has great potential for the integrating quality control of other traditional Chinese medicines.