New-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices for a better eco-user-friendly analytical approach–Application for the determination of antidepressant pharmaceuticals in biological fluids

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The present contribution aims to design new-generation bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) devices that promote an innovative and much better user-friendly analytical approach. The novel BAμE devices were lab-made prepared having smaller dimensions by using flexible nylon-based supports (7.5 × 1.0 mm) coated with convenient sorbents (≈ 0.5 mg). This novel advance allows effective microextraction and back-extraction (‘only single liquid desorption step’) stages as well as interfacing enhancement with the instrumental systems dedicated for routine analysis. To evaluate the achievements of these improvements, four antidepressant agents (bupropion, citalopram, amitriptyline and trazodone) were used as model compounds in aqueous media combined with liquid chromatography (LC) systems. By using an N-vinylpyrrolidone based-polymer phase good selectivity and efficiency were obtained. Assays performed on 25 mL spiked aqueous samples, yielded average recoveries in between 67.8 ± 12.4% (bupropion) and 88.3 ± 12.1% (citalopram), under optimized experimental conditions. The analytical performance also showed convenient precision (RSD < 12%) and detection limits (50 ng L−1), as well as linear dynamic ranges (160–2000 ng L−1) with suitable determination coefficients (r2 > 0.9820). The application of the proposed analytical approach on biological fluids showed negligible matrix effects by using the standard addition methodology. From the data obtained, the new-generation BAμE devices presented herein provide an innovative and robust analytical cycle, are simple to prepare, cost-effective, user-friendly and compatible with the current LC autosampler systems. Furthermore, the novel devices were designed to be disposable and used together with negligible amounts of organic solvents (100 μL) during back-extraction, in compliance with the green analytical chemistry principles. In short, the new-generation BAμE devices showed to be an eco-user-friendly approach for trace analysis of priority compounds in biological fluids and a versatile alternative over other well-stablished sorption-based microextraction techniques.

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