Platycladi Cacumen (PC) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of hemorrhages, cough, asthma and hair loss. To get a better understanding of the chemical constituents in PC, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and diagnostic ion filtering strategy were firstly employed for chemical profiling of PC. A total of 43 compounds including organic acids and derivatives, flavonoids as well as phenylpropanolds were unambiguously or reasonably identified. Coumarin and lignan were reported for the first time in PC. Chemical variation of 39 batches of PC from different geographical origins and 10 batches of processed product of PC was subsequently investigated by quantitation of nine major flavonoids. The results determined by UPLC coupled with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that the contents of flavonoids in PC samples differ greatly. This work provides an efficient approach to comprehensively evaluate the quality of PC.