Comparative phytochemical analysis of five lichen species [Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale, P. andinum (Mull. Arg.) Hale, P. praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, P. grayanum (Hue) Hale, P. austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale] of Parmotrema genus were performed using two complementary UPLC–MS systems. The first system consists of high resolution UPLC-QToF-MS/MS spectrometer and the second system consisted of UPLC–MS/MS in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for quantitative analysis of major constituents in the selected lichen species. The individual compounds (47 compounds) were identified using Q-ToF-MS/MS, via comparison of the exact molecular masses from their MS/MS spectra, the comparison of literature data and retention times to those of standard compounds which were isolated from crude extract of abundant lichen, P. tinctorum. The analysis also allowed us to identify unknown peaks/compounds, which were further characterized by their mass fragmentation studies. The quantitative MRM analysis was useful to have a better discrimination of species according to their chemical profile. Moreover, the determination of antioxidant activities (ABTS+ inhibition) and Advance Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) inhibition carried out for the crude extracts revealed a potential antiglycaemic activity to be confirmed for P. austrosinense.