Determination of d-amphetamine and diphenhydramine in beagle dog plasma by a 96-well formatted liquid-liquid extraction and capillary zone electrophoresis with field-amplified sample stacking

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Graphical abstractHighlightsA FASS CZE method was developed to determine d-amphetamine and diphenhydramine in dog plasma.The method enhanced the sensitivity about 40–70 fold compared to the CZE without stacking.Application of 96-well format improved the extraction efficiency.The method is viable for routine analysis of d-amphetamine and diphenhydramine in plasma.This paper describes a method for quantification of d-amphetamine and diphenhydramine in beagle dog plasma by organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking (FASS)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), using amlodipine as the internal standard. The separation was carried out at 25 °C in a 40.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 20 kV using 25 mM phosphate-18.75 mM borate (pH 3.5). The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Clean-up and preconcentration of plasma biosamples were developed by 96-well formatted liquid- liquid extraction (LLE). In this study, the peak areas of d-amphetamine, diphenhydramine and amlodipine in the plasma sample increased by the factor of 48, 67 and 43 compared to the CZE without sample stacking. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. The calibration graph was linear from 2 to 500 ng/ml for d-amphetamine and 2–5000 ng/ml for diphenhydramine. All the validation data were within the required limits. Compared with the LC/MS/MS method that we previously established, there was no significant difference between the two methods in validation characteristics, except the LLOQs. The developed method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetic study of the Quick-Acting Anti-Motion Capsules (QAAMC) in beagle dogs.

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