Inula viscosa (I. viscosa) is a common Mediterranean plant, well known for its content on bioactive molecules. The chemical composition of an ethanolic extract from I. viscosa leaves, growing in Algeria, was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS) operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used revealed the presence of 51 compounds from which 47 were putatively identified, including 11 phenolic acids, 23flavonoids, one lignan and 12 terpenoids. Twenty-six of these compounds are described for the first time in I. viscosa. Antioxidant activity was measured using three different and complementary chemical assays: DPPH radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC). Results demonstrate that ethanolic leaf extract exhibit a high scavenging ability against DPPH (157.72 ± 6.45 μM TE/g DW), peroxyl (4471.42 ± 113.16 μM TE/g DW) and hydroxyl (630.10 ± 17.81 μM TE/g DW) radicals, indicating that I. viscosa can be a promising source of bioactive compounds.