Metabolome based classification of artichoke leaf: A prospect for phyto-equivalency of its different leaf origins and commercial preparations

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Abstract

The growing interest in assuring phytomedicines efficacy and moreover the increase in requirements for its safety drive the development of analytical methods for its quality control assurance. Herein, we present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprinting approach of artichoke leaf material from different origins and in its commercial preparations. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously identify 23 metabolites including sugars, amino and organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, flavones, cinnamates, inulin, fatty acids and nitrogenous bases. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reveal for differences among artichoke specimens. PCA score plot derived from the aromatic region (5–10ppm) provided better classification model than that of full scan (0–10ppm), and revealing for enrichment of wild Egyptian and Tanzanian artichoke in sesquiterpene viz. aguerin B versus O-caffeoylquinic acid and luteolin abundance in cultivated leaf. PCA analysis of 3 commercial artichoke preparations showed discrimination of a silymarin-containing capsule suggesting that NMR can distinguish liver-aid herbal preparations based on its different chemical composition. Quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) was further employed to assess major metabolites levels and revealing for the enrichment of cultivated plants in cinnamates viz. (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.1mg/g) and O-caffeoyl quinic acid (15.09mg/g,). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing NMR fingerprinting to assess for phytoequivalency among artichoke leaf and in its preparations.

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