Natural deep eutectic solvents as eco-friendly and sustainable dilution medium for the determination of residual organic solvents in pharmaceuticals with static headspace-gas chromatography

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Abstract

Reported here is a simple and rapid static headspace gas chromatography (SHS-GC) method for the determination of trace solvents including ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, methanol and acetone which commonly used in drug production process. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) are firstly used as the matrix medium for this method, which provided high sensitivity for residual solvents detection. With the optimized method, validation experiments were performed and the data showed excellent linearity for all the solvents (R2 ≥ 0.999, n=7). The limits of detection (LOD) for ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, methanol and acetone are 0.09, 0.08, 0.07, 0.11, 0.06, 0.10, 0.12 and 0.08μg g−1, respectively. Accuracy was checked by a recovery experiment at three different levels, and the recoveries of the tested solvents were ranged from 94.3% to 105.4%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of each solvent for intra- and inter-day precision is in the range of 0.85 to 3.65 and 1.51 to 4.53, respectively. The developed approach can be readily used for determination of the residual solvents in six active pharmaceutical ingredients including pramipexole dihydrochloride, rivaroxaban, lisinopril, ramipril, imatinib mesylate and sitagliptin.

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