Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most frequent mortality cause in many countries. The acute myocardial infraction (AMI) is one of the most common types of CVDs. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) as predominant cardiac infarction biomarkers considered as “gold standard” for diagnosis of acute myocardial infraction (AMI). The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of highly sensitive and specific methods for cTnI and cTnT detection. The rapid, early, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of CVDs not only helps with patient survival, but also save cost and time to prosperous prognosis. In recent years, the concept of biosensors has opened new horizons in high precision detection. Once combined with nanomaterials, nano-scale biosensors provide powerful analytical platforms for diagnosing of cTnI and cTnT. In this article, after a brief overview of the cardiac troponins, a classification and description of the research progresses of biosensors and immunosensors for the detection and quantitative determination of cardiac troponins based on optical and electrochemical platforms are presented.