Metabolite profiling of “green” extracts ofCorylus avellanaleaves by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis

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Abstract

Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae) leaves, consumed as infusion, are used in traditional medicine, for the treatment of hemorrhoids, varicose veins, phlebitis, and edema due to their astringent, vasoprotective, and antiedema properties. In previous works we reported from the leaves of Corylus avellana cv. “Tonda di Giffoni” diarylheptanoid derivatives, a class of plant secondary metabolites with a wide variety of bioactivities. With the aim to give an interesting and economically feasible opportunity to C. avellana leaves as source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, “green” extracts were prepared by employing “eco-friendly” extraction protocols as maceration, infusion and SLDE-Naviglio extraction. Metabolite profiles of the extracts were obtained by 1H NMR experiments and data were processed by multivariate statistical analysis to highlight differences in the extracts and to evidence the extracts with the highest concentrations of bioactive metabolites. Based on the NMR data, a total of 31 compounds were identified. The metabolite variation among the extracts was evaluated using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Furthermore, the total phenolic content of the extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay and the antioxidant activity of extracts was assayed by the spectrophotometric tests DPPH• and ABTS and by an in vitro test based on the evaluation of cellular reactive oxygen species production stimulated by pyocyanin.

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