Novel electrophoretic acetonitrile-based stacking for sensitive monitoring of the antiepileptic drug perampanel in human serum

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Abstract

Perampanel is a novel antiepileptic drug used in paediatric patients. Existing methods that determine serum perampanel are of limited practicability. We developed a novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using a new version of acetonitrile stacking for on-line sample pre-concentration, and fluorescence detection (FD). CE separations were performed in a fused-silica capillary where the electroosmotic flow was reduced by coating the inner surface using a INST coating solution. The optimised background electrolyte composition was 50 mM chloroacetic acid with addition of 0.5% m/v polyvinylalcohol (pH 2.15) and separation was driven by application of positive voltage + 30 kV. Serum samples (25 μL) treated by the addition of acetonitrile in a ratio of 1:3 v/v were each injected into the capillary at a large volume that corresponded to the length (129 mm) of the sample zone (hydrodynamic pressure impulse 6000 mbars). Acetonitrile stacking is based on the forcing the sample zone out of the capillary with simultaneous application of the separation voltage. Under such conditions, the enhancing factor achieves the value 57 for peak area compared to the small sample injection length (3.2 mm, hydrodynamic pressure impulse 150 mbar.s). A fluorescence detector with a broad excitation filter (240–400 nm) and an emission filter (495 nm) was used for visualisation of the native fluorescence of perampanel. The calibration dependence of the method was linear (in the range of 10–1000 ng mL−1), with adequate accuracy (99.8–103.3 %) and precision (13.1%). LOD and LOQ for perampanel were 2.9 ng mL-1 and 9.5 ng mL−1, respectively. Clinical applicability was validated using serum samples from patients treated with perampanel and the results corresponded with reference LC–MS/MS values. Our method offers a promising alternative for determining serum perampanel with several advantages. In particular, the low quantity of serum (25 μL) required means that testing can be performed on samples obtained for monitoring other antiepileptic medications, and thus reduces the test-burden on paediatric patients.

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