Specific transient receptor potential channel agonists induced a differential release pattern of LTB4 and PGE2 from skin. These might directly influence perception thresholds and neurogenic inflammatory symptoms.
Analyzing mechanisms and key players in peripheral nociception nonneuronal skin cells are getting more and more into focus. Herein we investigated the functional expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts and assessed proinflammatory lipid mediator release upon their stimulation as well as sensory effects after topical application, combining in vitro and in vivo approaches. In vitro, the expression of functional TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels on fibroblasts and keratinocytes was confirmed via immunofluorescence, qualitative real time (RT) polymerase chain reaction, and cellular Ca2+ influx measurements. Additionally, the agonists allyl isothiocyanate (TRPA1) and capsaicin (TRPV1) induce a differential secretion pattern of the eicosanoids PGE2 and LTB4 in human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which was also detectable in vivo, analyzing suction blister fluid at various times after short-term topical application. Capsaicin provoked the release of LTB4 at 2 and 24 hours. In contrast, PGE2 levels were reduced upon stimulation. Allyl isothiocyanate, however, increased PGE2 levels only at 24 hours, but did not alter LTB4 levels. In parallel, heat pain thresholds were reduced by both agents after short-term topical application, but only AITC provoked a long-lasting local erythema. In conclusion, the agonist-induced activation of nociceptors by TRPA1 and TRPV1 elicits painful sensations, whereas nonneuronal tissue cells respond with differential release of inflammatory mediators, thus influencing local vasodilatation and neuronal sensitization. These results have implications for the application of transient receptor potential antagonists to improve inflammatory skin conditions and pain management.