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Emergence agitation (EA) is common after sevoflurane anesthesia, but there are no definite predictors. This study investigated whether intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG) can indicate the occurrence of EA in children.A prospective predictive study design was used.EEG-derived parameters (spectral edge frequency 95, beta, alpha, theta, and delta power) were measured at 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and 0.3 MAC of end-tidal sevoflurane (EtSEVO) in 29 patients. EA was evaluated using an EA score (EAS) in the postanesthetic care unit on arrival (EAS 0) and at 15 and 30 minutes after arrival (EAS 15 and EAS 30). The correlation between EEG-derived parameters and EAS was analyzed using Spearman correlation, and receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to measure the predictability.EA occurred in 11 patients. The alpha power at 1.0 MAC of EtSEVO was correlated with EAS 15 and EAS 30. The theta/alpha ratio at 0.3 MAC of EtSEVO was correlated with EAS 30. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of percentage of alpha bands at 0.3 MAC of EtSEVO and the occurrence of EA was 0.672.Children showing high-alpha powers and low theta powers (= low theta/alpha ratio) during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia are at high risk of EA in the postanesthetic care unit.