Human Factors Results for Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System (ITS) With Enhanced Controller for Postoperative Pain Management

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The purpose of this analysis was to conduct summative usability evaluations, including behavioral and subjective evaluations, for the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS).


Four usability studies were conducted in representative users.


The first three studies were conducted with (1) health care professionals (HCPs; N = 31), (2) patients who received placebo fentanyl ITS (N = 30), and (3) healthy volunteers (N = 30), and focused on the understanding and use of fentanyl ITS. The fourth study included HCPs (N = 31) and healthy volunteers (N = 30), and focused on the effectiveness of formal training regarding the use of fentanyl ITS.


Overall, user groups found the fentanyl ITS easy to use. There were no use errors that could potentially have safety implications. In the three early studies, there were some minor difficulties experienced; however, the introduction of a structured training reduced these difficulties.


Patients, nurses, and pharmacists were able to use fentanyl ITS with ease.

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