Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids

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Raman spectroscopy is experiencing a surge in interest in solid-state pharmaceutical applications. It is rapid, non-destructive, no sample preparation is required and measurements can be made in aqueous environments. It can be used for not only qualitative, but also quantitative, analysis. In this paper, the use of Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids is reviewed. The technique has been used for chemical and physical form analysis. Physical form analysis has involved quantification of polymorphism, hydrates, the amorphous form and, recently, protein conformation. Initially, simple powder systems were quantified, although this has since extended to complex pharmaceutical formulations, including tablets, capsules, microspheres and suspensions. Formulations have also been analysed through packaging. The characteristics of the technique make it ideal for process monitoring and it has been used to quantify changes in-situ during processes such as wet granulation and batch crystallisation. The theoretical basis of quantitative Raman spectroscopy, common data analysis approaches, including multivariate analysis, and sources of error in quantitative analysis are also discussed.

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