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As caries is the most frequent cause of the failure of composite resin-based restorations, composite resins with antibacterial properties are desirable. However, whether quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles can be effectively incorporated is unknown.The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus of a foundation material incorporating quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QPEI) nanoparticles.QPEI antimicrobial nanoparticles were incorporated in a commercially available foundation material (Q Core; BJM Laboratories Ltd) at 1% wt/wt. Antibacterial efficacy against S mutans (106 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) and A viscosus (106 CFU/mL) was examined by the direct contact test (DCT), and the agar diffusion test (ADT) with and without surface polishing. Bacterial outgrowth was recorded with a spectrophotometer.Growth of S mutans and A viscosus was inhibited, showing a decrease by 6 orders of magnitude in bacterial viability in specimens incorporating the nanoparticles, even after polishing the foundation material (P<.05). Growth inhibition was not observed in specimens without nanoparticles.Antibacterial properties can be achieved in a commercially available foundation material by incorporating polycationic antibacterial nanoparticles. This antibacterial effect did not diminish after surface polishing.