Influence of surface finishing on fracture load and failure mode of glass ceramic crowns

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Statement of problem.Ceramic restorations often require adjustments using diamond rotary instruments, which damage the glazed surface. The effect of these adjustments on the fracture behavior of these restorations is unclear.Purpose.The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of induced surface defects on the fracture load and mode of failure of lithium disilicate–based (LDS) glass ceramic restorations.Material and methods.Premolar crowns were obtained from LDS computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing blocks (n=60) and glazed. The crowns were bonded to dentin analog dies and divided into 5 groups (n=12), as follows: glaze; abrasion (diamond rotary instrument 2135); abrasion and reglaze; abrasion and polishing (diamond rotary instrument 2135F, 2135 FF, and polishing devices); and polishing. The topography of the crowns was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and roughness was measured. A compressive load (0.5 mm/min) was applied by a piston to the center of the lingual cusp until fracture. The fracture load was recorded and data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Fractured crowns were examined to determine the fracture origin.Results.Polishing and/or reglazing resulted in lower roughness than for the abraded group (P<.05), which did not affect the fracture loads (P=.696). Catastrophic fracture with origin at the intaglio surface was the mode of failure for all the crowns.Conclusions.The experiment design successfully submitted the crowns to a clinical stress state, resulting in a clinically relevant failure. Reglazing or polishing were effective in reducing surface defects. Surface treatments had no effect on the immediate catastrophic failure of LDS crowns.

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