AbstractStatement of problem.
A composite resin cement and matching self-etch adhesive was developed to simplify the dependable retention of lithium disilicate crowns. The efficacy of this new system is unknown.Purpose.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether lithium disilicate crowns cemented with a new composite resin and adhesive system and 2 other popular systems provide clinically acceptable crown retention after long-term aging with monthly thermocycling.Material and methods.
Extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree convergence, and 4 mm axial length. The axio-occlusal line angle was slightly rounded. The preparation surface area was determined by optical scanning and the analysis of the standard tessellation language (STL) files. The specimens were distributed into 3 cement groups (n=12) to obtain equal mean surface areas. Lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated for each preparation, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 15 seconds, and cleaned. Cement systems were RelyX Ultimate with Scotch Bond Universal (3M Dental Products); Monobond S, Multilink Automix with Multilink Primer A and B (Ivoclar Vivadent AG); and NX3 Nexus with OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp). Each adhesive provided self-etching of the dentin. Before cementation, the prepared specimens were stored in 35°C water. A force of 196 N was used to cement the crowns, and the specimens were polymerized in a 35°C oven at 100% humidity. After 24 hours of storage at 100% humidity, the cemented crowns were thermocycled (5°C to 55°C) for 5000 cycles each month for 6 months. The crowns were removed axially at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded and the dislodgement stress calculated using the preparation surface area. The type of cement failure was recorded, and the data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the chi-square test (α=.05) after the equality of variances had been assessed with the Levene test.Results.
The Levene test was nonsignificant (P=.936). The ANOVA revealed the mean removal stresses, and forces did not differ for RelyX Ultimate with Scotchbond Universal (3.9 MPa; 522 N) and Multilink Automix with Multilink Primer (3.7 MPa; 511 N); both differed significantly (P=.022) from the mean for NX3 Nexus with OptiBond XTR (2.9 MPa; 387 N). For all 3 cements, the modes of failure showed cement principally on the crown intaglio, and the chi-square analysis was nonsignificant (P=.601).Conclusions.
IPS e.max Press (lithium disilicate) crowns were well retained (2.9-3.9 MPa; 387-522 N) by the 3 cement-adhesive combinations after 6 months of aging with monthly thermocycling. These results can serve as a basis for cement selection for this type of crown because the values significantly exceeded those for zinc phosphate. Cements using their matched dentin bonding agent as the ceramic primer were as successful as cements with a separate silane coupling agent.