Effect of saliva contamination and artificial aging on different primer/cement systems bonded to zirconia

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Statement of problem.

Saliva contamination has been shown to decrease bonding to zirconia. Adopting a less contamination-sensitive cement system may be an alternative to decontamination.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the ability of different primer/cement systems to promote a durable bond to zirconia after saliva contamination.

Material and methods.

Zirconia blocks (Lava Plus) (N=320) were airborne-particle abraded (50 μm Al2O3) and divided into 32 experimental groups (n=10) according to the variables in the study: saliva contamination; primer/cement system (Panavia SA [PSA]; RelyX Unicem 2 [RU2]; Bifix SE [BSE]; Panavia F2.0 [PF2]; Scotchbond Universal + RelyX Ultimate [SBU+RXU]; Futurabond M+ + Bifix QM [FBM+BQM]; All-Bond Universal + Duo-link [ABU+DL]; Z-Prime Plus + Duo-link [ZPP+DL]; and aging period (72 hours; 30 days with 10 000 thermocycles at 5°C to 55°C). After half of the blocks had been contaminated with fresh human saliva for 10 minutes, rinsed with water, and air-dried, each primer/cement was applied. Polymerized composite resin disks were then placed over the cement, and the resin cement was light-polymerized for 20 seconds each at 2 opposite margins. After the aging time, the specimens were tested in shear (1 mm/min). The failure mode was classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Statistical analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) data was performed with ANOVA followed by Tukey honest significant difference post hoc tests. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the failure mode data (α=.05).


The mean SBS ranged between 4.2 and 34.5 MPa. Shear bond strength was influenced (P<.001) by all the factors studied (cement system, saliva contamination, aging time). SBU+RXU and FBM+BQM showed a higher mean SBS than those of the other experimental groups (P<.05) and were the only groups not affected by saliva contamination (P>.05). Failure was predominantly classified as adhesive.


In general, saliva contamination and aging decreased bonding efficacy. Two systems, combining an application of a universal adhesive and a resin cement (SBU+RXU and FBM+BQM) were not affected by saliva contamination.

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