Fracture analysis of CAD-CAM high-density polymers used for interim implant-supported fixed, cantilevered prostheses

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Abstract

Statement of problem.

The load-to-fracture performance of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) high-density polymer (HDP) materials in cantilevers is unknown.

Purpose.

The purposes of this in vitro study were to evaluate the load-to-fracture performance of CAD-CAM–fabricated HDPs and to compare that with performance of autopolymerized and injection-molded acrylic resins.

Material and methods.

Specimens from 8 different brands of CAD-CAM HDPs, including Brylic Solid (BS); Brylic Gradient (BG); AnaxCAD Temp EZ (AE); AnaxCAD Temp Plus (AP); Zirkonzahn Temp Basic (Z); GDS Tempo-CAD (GD); Polident (Po); Merz M-PM-Disc (MAT); an autopolymerized acrylic resin, Imident (Conv) and an injection-molded acrylic resin, SR-IvoBase High Impact (Inj) were evaluated for load-to-fracture analysis (n=5). CAD-CAM specimens were milled from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blocks measuring 7 mm in buccolingual width, 8 mm in occlusocervical thickness, and 30 mm in length. A wax pattern was prepared in the same dimensions used for CAD-CAM specimens, flasked, and boiled out. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin was packed and polymerized in a pressure container for 30 minutes. An identical wax pattern was flasked and boiled out, and premeasured capsules were injected (SR-IvoBase) and polymerized under hydraulic pressure for 35 minutes for the injection-molded PMMA. Specimens were thermocycled 5000 times (5°C to 55°C) and fixed to a universal testing machine to receive static loads on the 10-mm cantilever, vertically at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture occurred. Maximum load-to-fracture values were recorded. ANOVA was used to analyze the maximum force values. Significant differences among materials were analyzed by using the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (α=.05).

Results.

Statistically significant differences were found among load-to-fracture values of different HDPs (P<.001). GD and Po materials had significantly higher load-to-fracture values than other materials (P<.001), and no statistically significant differences were found between GD and Po. The lowest load-to-fracture values were observed for autopolymerized and BG materials, which were significantly lower than those of GD, Po, AE, AP, Z, MAT, Inj, and BS. The load-to-fracture value of autopolymerized acrylic resin was not significantly different from that of BG CAD-CAM polymer.

Conclusions.

GD and Po CAD-CAM materials had the highest load-to-fracture values. AE, AP, Z, MAT, and BS CAD-CAM polymers and injection-molded acrylic resin had similar load-to-fracture values, which were higher than those of BG and autopolymerized acrylic resin. Autopolymerized acrylic resin load-to-fracture value was similar to that of BG CAD-CAM polymer, which is colored in a gradient pattern.

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