Comparison of the mechanical properties of translucent zirconia and lithium disilicate

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Abstract

Statement of problem.

Three mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) possesses excellent mechanical properties but is relatively opaque. Five mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystal (5Y-ZP) offers improved translucency, but many of its clinical properties have not been compared with those of 3Y-TZP and lithium disilicate.

Purpose.

The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural strength, translucency parameter, bond strength, and enamel and material wear of 5Y-ZP (Katana UTML) with 3Y-TZP (Katana HT) and lithium disilicate (e.max CAD).

Material and methods.

Flexural strength bars were sectioned (n=10, 25×4×2 mm), sintered or crystallized, polished, and fractured at 1 mm/min. Translucency specimens (1 mm thick) were fabricated (n=10). Their L*a*b* values were measured against a black-and-white background with a spectrophotometer, and ΔE00 was calculated. Zirconia bond strength specimens were airborne-particle abraded with 50 μm alumina followed by the application of a 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate–containing primer (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). Lithium disilicate bond strength specimens were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid followed by application of a silane-containing primer (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). A Tygon tube filled with resin cement (Panavia SA) was fixed to the surface of the ceramics and light-polymerized. After 1 day or 150 days of water storage, the resin cement was debonded in a macroshear test (n=10). The cusps of extracted human molars were isolated and mounted into the University of Alabama at Birmingham wear-testing device. Wear testing was performed with a 20-N load for 300 000 cycles in 33% glycerin. The volumetric wear of polished zirconia, lithium disilicate, and enamel were measured along with the wear of the opposing enamel cusps using a noncontact profilometer (n=8). The data were compared by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer analysis (α=.05).

Results.

No statistical difference was seen between the bond strengths (P=.155) or the opposing enamel wear (P=.533) of different ceramics. A statistically significant difference was seen between the flexural strength (P<.001), translucency parameter (P<.001), and wear (P<.001) of the materials. The flexural strength values (MPa) were 1194 ±111 (Katana HT), 688 ±159 (Katana UTML), and 450 ±53 (e.max LT). The translucency parameter values were 6.96 ±0.53 (Katana HT), 8.30 ±0.24 (Katana UTML), 9.28 ±0.36 (e.max LT), and 12.64 ±0.48 (e.max HT). Bond strength values (MPa) at 1 and 150 days were 34.22 ±5.14 and 28.37 ±6.03 (Katana HT), 35.04 ±5.69 and 25.03 ±6.44 (Katana UTML), and 35.50 ±3.45 and 22.32 ±3.45 (e.max LT). Material and enamel wear (mm3) were 0 and 0.24 ±0.19 (Katana HT), 0 and 0.23 ±0.09 (Katana UTML), 0.28 ±0.13 and 0.31 ±0.10 (e.max CAD), and 0.09 ±0.03 and 0.31 ±0.14 (enamel).

Conclusions.

5Y-TZP has a flexural strength and translucency parameter between those of 3Y-TZP and lithium disilicate. Both the short-term and long-term bond strength of 5Y-ZP and 3Y-TZP was shown to be similar to lithium disilicate. 5Y-ZP demonstrated no measurable material wear and opposing enamel wear similar to that of all the other materials tested.

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