Effect of surface treatments and coffee thermocycling on the color and translucency of CAD-CAM monolithic glass-ceramic

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Statement of problem.

The effects of surface treatments and coffee thermocycling on the color and relative translucency of a recently introduced computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) monolithic glass-ceramic are unknown.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of coffee thermocycling on the color and relative translucency parameter (RTP) of CAD-CAM monolithic glass-ceramics after different surface treatments.

Material and methods.

Specimens (1.5-mm-thick) were sectioned from zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic (ZLS) (n=18) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDS) blocks (n=18). Two different types of surface treatments (glazing or polishing) were applied to the specimens. The specimens were subjected to 5000 thermocycles in a coffee solution. The color coordinates of specimens were measured before and after coffee thermocycling by using a spectroradiometer, and color differences and relative translucency values were calculated by using CIEDE2000 color difference and RTP formulas. ANOVA was used to analyze the color difference and relative translucency values by using maximum likelihood estimation and the Satterthwaite degrees of freedom methods. Any significant interaction between surface subgroups was further analyzed by using the Tukey-Kramer adjustment (α=.05).


Material type had a significant effect on color difference (P=.018). All color difference values of all materials were smaller than the clinical acceptability threshold (<1.8 units). For relative translucency, material (P<.001) and coffee thermocycling had a significant effect (P=.014), and an interaction was found between the surface treatments and materials (P<.001). The Tukey-Kramer test revealed significant differences between glazed and polished subgroups of LDS material, except for ZLS-glazed and ZLS-polished subgroups.


Different surface treatments of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate and lithium disilicate glass-ceramics resulted in clinically acceptable color changes after coffee thermocycling. The color changes in all groups, except for LDS-polished, were not perceivable. Lithium disilicate was more translucent than zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate before and after coffee thermocycling. Coffee thermocycling decreased the translucency of both of the materials. Different surface treatments affected the translucency of only lithium disilicate for tested thickness.

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