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The use of single or mini dental implants to retain mandibular overdentures is still questionable.The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) study was to investigate the biomechanical behavior of 2- and single-implant–retained mandibular overdentures with conventional or mini implants.Four 3-dimensional (3D) finite element models were constructed with the following designs of mandibular overdentures: 2 (group 2-C) and single (group 1-C) conventional external hexagon implants with ball or O-ring attachment and 2 (group 2-M) and single (group 1-M) 1-piece mini implants. A 150-N axial load was applied bilaterally and simultaneously on the first molar. Overdenture displacement, von Mises equivalent stress (implants and/or prosthetic components), and maximum principal stresses (peri-implant bone) were recorded numerically and then color-coded and compared among the groups.The overdenture displacement (in mm) was higher for the 1-M (0.16) and 2-M (0.17) groups when compared with 1-C (0.09) and 2-C (0.08). Irrespective of the type of implant, the single-implant groups presented higher values of stress (in MPa) on the implants than did the 2-implant groups (1-C=52.53; 1-M=2.95; 2-C=34.66; 2-M=2.37), ball attachment (1-C=201.33; 2-C=159.06), housing or O-ring (1-C=125.01; 1-M=1.96; 2-C=88.84; 2-M=1.27), and peri-implant cortical bone (1-C=19.37; 1-M=1.47; 2-C=15.70; 2-M=1.06). The mini implant overdentures presented lower stress values on the implants, housing or O-ring, and peri-implant bone than did the conventional implant overdentures, regardless of the number of implants.The 2-implant–retained overdentures exhibited lower stresses than the single- implant–retained overdentures, irrespective of the type of implant. The mini implants demonstrated higher overdenture displacement and lower stresses than did conventional implant overdentures for single- and 2-implant–retained overdentures.