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On an acrylic resin denture base, a smooth and highly polished surface is important to maintain oral health and prevent bacterial colonization. It is unclear how best to obtain such a surface.The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of both colloidal silica and diamond suspension abrasives on the roughness values of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material.Thirty PMMA specimens were fabricated and divided into 3 groups (n=10). Each was automatically polished using a diamond suspension, a colloidal silica suspension, and pumice. The mean roughness value (Ra) after polishing was recorded using a profilometer. An optical electron microscope was further used to evaluate the smoothness of the polished surface. ANOVA was used to analyze the roughness average (Ra) values for all polished specimens. A multicomparison test with Bonferroni correction was used to identify the mean differences among the 3 abrasive materials (α=.05).The Ra values measured for the colloidal silica suspension and pumice were statistically different (P<.001). Equally, statistical differences were observed between the diamond suspension and pumice abrasives (P<.05). No significant differences were found between the diamond and colloidal silica suspensions (P>.05). The PMMA specimens polished using pumice had the highest Ra values, whereas specimens polished using the colloidal silica suspension had the lowest Ra values.The colloidal silica produced the lowest Ra values and was the most effective polishing material for denture base resins.