Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis with palivizumab

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Abstract

Background

A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, directed against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to decrease hospitalisation rates. Because of its expense, the cost-effectiveness of this agent should be determined for high-risk groups.

Aim

To determine characteristics of RSV infection in Townsville and the economic feasibility of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis in high-risk groups.

Methods

Cases of RSV-positive bronchiolitis were retrospectively identified. Cases were grouped according to recognised risk factors. The hypothetical costs of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis for infants at risk were calculated.

Results

The rate of hospitalisation with RSV-positive lower respiratory tract infection was 22 per 1000 live births but increased to 50 per 1000 among Indigenous babies born weighing <2500 g. The cost of preventing an admission in each of the identified high-risk groups, based on drug costs alone, ranged from A$69 861 to A$88 547.

Conclusion

Palivizumab was not cost-effective in the prophylaxis of RSV in the high-risk group of infants tested here.

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