Health-Related Quality of Life and Psychological Adjustment of Children and Adolescents with Hypospadias

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To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological adjustment of children and adolescents after hypospadias repair and to identify sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial predictors of outcome.

Study design

77 boys (7-17 years old) who underwent surgery for hypospadias were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Child- and mother-rated HRQoL was evaluated by the TNO-AZL Child Quality of Life Questionnaire, psychological adjustment by the Child Behavior Checklist. Scores were compared with an age-matched control group consisting of 77 boys after hernia repair.


Compared with the control subjects, self-reported HRQoL of patients with hypospadias was lower in most dimensions. In contrast, mother-reported HRQoL and psychological adjustment did not differ in the 2 groups. Higher age and “being less ashamed of penile appearance” predicted better self-reported HRQoL, whereas positive penile self-perception, the patient's experience of not having been teased about his penis, and more severe hypospadias contributed to better mother-reported HRQoL. Psychological adjustment was predicted by higher age, Swiss nationality, more severe hypospadias, and the patient's experience of not having been teased about his penis.


In contrast to psychological adjustment, self-reported HRQoL of boys with hypospadias can be diminished. Psychosocial factors are more important predictors than medical variables.

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