Outcomes of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in the Modern Era of Management

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To identify clinical factors associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and mortality in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

Study design

A prospective cohort of neonates with a diaphragm defect identified at 1 of 7 collaborating medical centers was studied. Echocardiograms were performed at 1 month and 3 months of age and analyzed at a central core by 2 cardiologists independently. Degree of PH and survival were tested for association with clinical variables using Fischer exact test, χ2, and regression analysis.


Two hundred twenty patients met inclusion criteria. Worse PH measured at 1 month of life was associated with higher mortality. Other factors associated with mortality were need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, patients inborn at the treating center, and patients with a prenatal diagnosis of CDH. Interestingly, patients with right sided CDH did not have worse outcomes.


Severity of PH is associated with mortality in CDH. Other factors associated with mortality were birth weight, gestational age at birth, inborn status, and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

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