Haemophilus influenzaeType b Disease among Children in Rural Mozambique: Impact of Vaccine Introduction

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Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has dramatically reduced invasive Hib disease worldwide. Yet, data on protection against pneumonia and among children with HIV are limited. We evaluated the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine introduction in 2009 in a rural, high-HIV prevalence area in Mozambique.

Study design

From 2006-2011, we conducted hospital-based surveillance for invasive Hib disease and clinical pneumonia (classified as severe and very severe) among children <5 years of age. Incidences calculated using population denominators were compared between baseline (2006-2008) and post-Hib conjugate vaccine (2010-2011) periods. Surveillance data for radiologically-confirmed pneumonia among children <2 years of age in 2011 were compared with baseline data from 2004-2006.


Among 50 cases of invasive Hib disease, 5 occurred after Hib conjugate vaccine introduction; 1 case-patient was age-eligible for Hib conjugate vaccine (and had received 3 doses). Four post-Hib conjugate vaccine case-patients (including Hib conjugate vaccine failure) had HIV. Among children <1 and <5 years of age, significant reductions occurred in rates of invasive Hib disease (91% and 85%, respectively) and very severe pneumonia (29% and 34%, respectively). Radiologically-confirmed pneumonia incidence fell significantly (33%) in children <2 years of age. Severe pneumonia incidence did not decline.


We demonstrate important reductions in invasive disease and pneumonia following Hib conjugate vaccine introduction in a high-HIV area. Continued surveillance is needed to monitor long-term Hib conjugate vaccine effects, particularly among children with HIV.

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