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To estimate the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of nationwide Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination in India.A decision support model was used, bringing together estimates of demography, epidemiology, Hib vaccine effectiveness, Hib vaccine costs, and health care costs. Scenarios favorable and unfavorable to the vaccine were evaluated. State-level analyses indicate where the vaccine might have the greatest impact and value.Between 2012 and 2031, Hib conjugate vaccination is estimated to prevent over 200 000 child deaths (˜1% of deaths in children <5 years of age) in India at an incremental cost of US$127 million per year. From a government perspective, state-level cost-effectiveness ranged from US$192 to US$1033 per discounted disability adjusted life years averted. With the inclusion of household health care costs, cost-effectiveness ranged from US$155-US$939 per discounted disability adjusted life year averted. These values are below the World Health Organization thresholds for cost effectiveness of public health interventions.Hib conjugate vaccination is a cost-effective intervention in all States of India. This conclusion does not alter with plausible changes in key parameters. Although investment in Hib conjugate vaccination would significantly increase the cost of the Universal Immunization Program, about 15% of the incremental cost would be offset by health care cost savings. Efforts should be made to expedite the nationwide introduction of Hib conjugate vaccination in India.