Smoking and Arterial Stiffness in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease Study

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To evaluate the effects of smoking on early markers of cardiovascular disease (arterial stiffness) in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease Study.

Study design

Participants included 606 youth (18.9 ± 3.3 years, 83% non-Hispanic white; 50% male). Six groups were defined: (1) smokers with T1D (n = 80); (2) former smokers with T1D (n = 88); (3) nonsmokers with T1D (n = 232); (4) smokers without T1D (n = 40); (5) former smokers without T1D former (n = 51); and (6) nonsmokers without T1D (n = 115). Arterial stiffness measurements included pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index, and brachial distensibility. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent and joint effects of T1D and smoking on arterial stiffness.


Nearly 20% of both youth with and without T1D and T1D were smokers. In youth without T1D, smokers had higher trunk and arm PWV. After adjustment for potential confounders, T1D, but not smoking, was an independent predictor of PWV (P < .05). Moreover, smoking status did not modify the association between T1D and increased arterial stiffness.


We found a high prevalence of smoking among youth with and without T1D; however, smoking status was not independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in youth with T1D.

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