The Association among Feeding Mode, Growth, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants with Complex Congenital Heart Disease at 6 and 12 Months of Age

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Abstract

Objective

To assess the association between early anthropometric measurements, device-assisted feeding, and early neurodevelopment in infants with complex congenital heart diseases (CHDs).

Study design

Bayley Scales of Infant Development II were used to assess cognitive and motor skills in 72 infants with CHD at 6 and 12 months of age. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between mode of feeding and anthropometric measurements with neurodevelopment at 6 and 12 months of age.

Results

Of the 72 infants enrolled in the study, 34 (47%) had single-ventricle physiology. The mean Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) scores at 6 months of age were 92 ± 10 and 81 ± 14, respectively. At 12 months of age, the mean MDI and PDI scores were 94 ± 12 and 80 ± 16, respectively. Lower length-for-age z score (P < .01) and head circumference-for-age z score (P < .05) were independently associated with lower MDI at 6 months, and both increased hospital length of stay (P < .01) and lower length-for-age z score (P = .04) were associated independently with lower MDI at 12 months. Device-assisted feeding at 3 months (P = .04) and lower length-for-age z score (P < .05) were independently associated with lower PDI at 6 months. Both lower weight-for-age z score (P = .04) and lower length-for-age z score (P = .04) were associated independently with PDI at 12 months.

Conclusion

Neonates with complex CHD who required device-assisted feeding and those with lower weight and length and head circumference z scores at 3 months were at risk for neurodevelopmental delay at 6 and 12 months of age.

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