Mandatory Closure Versus Nonintervention for Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Preterm Infants

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ObjectiveTo determine whether a nonintervention approach for treating hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with decreased mortality and/or morbidity compared with a mandatory closure approach in extremely low birth weight infants.Study designWe reviewed the medical records of 178 infants of 23-26 weeks' gestational age with PDA, requiring ventilator treatment, and with hemodynamically significant PDA ≥2 mm in size. Mandatory closure was used during period I (July 2009 to December 2011, n = 81), and nonintervention was used during period II (January 2012 to June 2014, n = 97).ResultsDuring period I, 64% of infants were first treated with indomethacin, and 82% were ultimately ligated surgically. During period II, no infant was treated with indomethacin and/or ligation. The average postnatal day of PDA closure was day 13 and day 44 during periods I and II, respectively. There was significantly more use of diuretics and fluid restriction during period II compared with period I. There was no difference in mortality or morbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis or intraventricular hemorrhage. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and the propensity score adjusted OR of BPD were significantly lower during period II compared with period I.ConclusionsDespite longer PDA exposure, nonintervention was associated with significantly less BPD compared with mandatory closure. Additional study is warranted to determine the benefits and risks of non-intervention for the hemodynamically significant PDA in extremely low birth weight infants.

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