Social Determinants of Health Are Associated with Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Vascular Function in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

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ObjectiveTo evaluate the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as a measure of arterial stiffness in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D).Study designSDH were measured with the validated Ontario Marginalization Index, derived from deidentified postal code data and stratified by quintile (first = least deprived; fifth = most deprived). SDH dimensions included material deprivation; ethnic concentration; and measures of dependency and residential instability. Metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c), cardiovascular risk metrics, and pulse wave velocity, as a measure of arterial stiffness, were related to SDH. Data were evaluated from a cohort of Canadian adolescents within the Adolescent Diabetes Cardiorenal Intervention Trial, a T1D clinical trialResultsA total of 704 participants were evaluated, and significant differences in hemoglobin A1c were evident at the extremes of material deprivation (8.4% vs 9.1% for least vs most deprived, P < .01). CVD risk factors were analyzed in 199 participants, with the most deprived reporting significantly less exercise (P = .004) and increased rates of smoking (P = .008). Increased material deprivation was associated with fewer metrics of “ideal” cardiovascular health attained. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, was associated positively with age, body mass index z score, and material deprivation.ConclusionIncreased material deprivation was associated with poorer glycemic control. Modifiable, lifestyle-related risk factors for CVD and early arterial wall change are associated with SDH and represent a target for clinical intervention to reduce future CVD burden in adolescents with T1D.

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