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To assess the independent or comorbid effect of conduct and mood disorders on the risk of suicide.The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to derive data for 3711 adolescents aged 12-17 years with conduct disorder and 14 844 age- and sex-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. The participants were followed up to the end of 2011, and those who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified.Adolescents with conduct disorder had a higher incidence of suicide (0.9% vs 0.1%; P < .001) and attempted suicide at a younger age (17.38 ± 2.04 vs 20.52 ± 1.70 years of age) than did the controls. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, after adjustment for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities, determined that conduct disorder was an independent risk factor for subsequent suicide attempts (hazard ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.29-11.70). The sensitivity after those with other psychiatric comorbidities were excluded revealed a consistent finding (hazard ratio, 10.32; 95% CI, 3.71-28.71).Adolescents with conduct disorder had an increased risk of suicide attempts over the next decade. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology and elucidate whether prompt intervention for conduct disorder could reduce this risk.