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We hypothesized that postnatal absolute nucleated red blood cell (aNRBC) counts would be elevated in premature infants with hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), reflecting intrauterine hypoxia. PDA severity was assessed and categorized echocardiographically. aNRBC counts were significantly correlated with ductal severity (Pearson correlation: P = .007). At the extremes, aNRBC levels were 3770 (728, 6015) hemodynamically significant PDA vs 865 (483, 2528) closed ductus.