Estonia has a population of 1.3 million, which makes it one of the least populous member states of the European Union. The fertility rate was 1.65 in 2011, and the average age of women at first child birth was 4 years higher than in the early 1990s. Medical care is free for all children in Estonia. For the last 20 years, family doctors have been responsible for the primary care of children. Pediatric subspecialists work mainly in 2 children's hospitals: the Children's Clinic of Tartu University Hospital and Tallinn Children's Hospital. The average duration of hospital stay has decreased year by year. Pediatric subspecialists take care of children with long-term conditions and chronic diseases. In recent years, electronic case reports and digital receipts have been in use in Estonia. New diagnostic tests and expensive medications, which are available, make the cost of medical care very high.