Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Objective

To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking.

Study design

This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups.

Results

Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P < .01) and 6-month self-reported abstinence (13.4% vs. 7.5%; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.40; P < .01). Within the intervention group, compared with receipt of individual counseling only, participation in the FCS was associated with increases in fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P < .01), and support to the fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P < .01).

Conclusions

The family-based smoking cessation intervention for the families in the well-child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers.

Trial registration

Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465.

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