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To determine the risk of morbidity and mortality after laparoscopic surgery among children with congenital heart disease (CHD).Cohort study using the 2013-2014 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatrics, which prospectively collected data at 56 and 64 hospitals in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Primary exposure was CHD. Primary outcome was overall in-hospital postoperative mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality and 30-day morbidity (any nondeath adverse event). Among 34 543 children who underwent laparoscopic surgery, 1349, 1106, and 266 had minor, major, and severe CHD, respectively. After propensity score matching within each stratum of CHD severity, morbidity and mortality were compared between children with and without CHD.Children with severe CHD had higher overall mortality and 30-day morbidity (OR 12.31, 95% CI 1.59-95.01; OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.57-4.01, respectively), compared with matched controls. Overall mortality and 30-day morbidity were also higher among children with major CHD compared with children without CHD (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.49-8.06; OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.65-2.61, respectively). Children with minor CHD had similar mortality outcomes, but had higher 30-day morbidity compared with children without CHD (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.13).Children with major or severe CHD have higher morbidity and mortality after laparoscopic surgery. Clinicians should consider the increased risks of laparoscopic surgery for these children during medical decision making.