1Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA2Epidemiology and Environmental Health, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY3Nutritional Physiology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico4School of Medicine, University of Juárez at Durango, Durango, Mexico5Department of Toxicology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico6Department of Pharmacology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico7School of Natural Sciences, University of Querétaro and Center for Research and Technology Development in Chronic Diseases, CINDETEC, A.C., Querétaro, Mexico
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ObjectiveTo examine the role of iron and zinc in arsenic excretion and metabolism in children.Study designAn analysis of urinary arsenic (UAs) concentrations from a double-blind randomized trial originally testing the efficacy of iron and zinc for lowering blood lead levels in children. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with children randomized individually, stratified by sex and classroom, to receive 30 mg ferrous fumarate (n = 148), 30 mg zinc oxide (n = 144), iron and zinc together (n = 148), or placebo (n = 151). Of the 602 children enrolled, 527 completed the 6-month treatment, and 485 had both baseline and final UAs values. The baseline total UAs concentration ranged from 3.2 to 215.9 μg/L.ResultsAt baseline, children in the highest tertile of serum ferritin concentration had higher excretion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA; 1.93 ± 0.86%; P < .05), but lower excretion of monomethylarsonic acid (-0.91 ± 0.39%; P < .05), compared with children in the lowest tertile. In an intention-to-treat analysis, iron had no effect on arsenic methylation or UAs excretion, but children receiving zinc had lower %DMA in urine (-1.7 ± 0.8; P < .05).ConclusionsIron and zinc status are not related to arsenic metabolism in children, and supplementation with these minerals has limited application in lowering arsenic concentrations.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02346188.