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To investigate the association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration with urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) who did not develop acute kidney injury (AKI).In this prospective observational study, urinary NGAL levels were investigated in 210 children who underwent cardiothoracic surgery requiring CPB. Children with clinical AKI (defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥50% from baseline within 72 hours of CPB) were excluded from the analysis. NSAIDs were administered no sooner than 24 hours after CPB. NGAL levels were compared between children who received NSAIDs (n = 146) and those who did not receive NSAIDs (n = 64).The median age was 3.2 years in the children who received NSAIDs and 2.5 years in those who did not receive NSAIDs (P = .05). Before NSAID administration at 24 hours following CPB, the median NGAL level was 15 ng/mL in both groups (P = .92). Following NSAID administration, the median urinary NGAL level increased to 83 ng/mL (IQR, 45–95 ng/mL) at 72 hours after CPB in those receiving NSAIDs (P < .001). In contrast, the median NGAL level decreased to 10 ng/mL (IQR, 5.4–15.9 ng/mL) at 72 hours after CPB in those who did not receive NSAIDs (P = .01). In multivariable analysis, children receiving NSAIDs demonstrated a 5-fold elevation of urinary NGAL levels at 60–72 hours following CPB compared with those who did not receive NSAIDs (P < .001).NSAID administration was associated with a significant increase in urinary NGAL in children who did not develop clinical AKI following CPB. This indicates that NGAL can detect NSAID-induced subclinical kidney injury in this population.