Persistent High Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Early Childhood: A Latent Class Growth Model Analysis

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ObjectivesTo examine patterns of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in early childhood and identify factors associated with persistent high non-HDL cholesterol in healthy urban children.Study designWe identified all children enrolled in a primary care practice-based research network called TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) with ≥3 laboratory measurements of non-HDL cholesterol. Latent class growth model analysis was performed to identify distinct trajectory groups for non-HDL cholesterol. Trajectory groups were then categorized into “normal” vs “persistent-high” non-HDL cholesterol based on guideline cut-off values and logistic regression was completed to examine the association between trajectory group and the presence of anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors.ResultsA total of 608 children met inclusion criteria for the trajectory analysis (median age at enrolment = 18.3, IQR = 27.9 months). Four trajectory groups were identified with 2 groups (n = 451) categorized as normal non-HDL cholesterol and 2 groups (n = 157) as persistent high non-HDL cholesterol. Family history of high cholesterol (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.27–3.28) was associated significantly with persistent high non-HDL cholesterol, whereas East/Southeast Asian vs European ethnicity (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.78), longer breastfeeding duration (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–1.00), and greater birth weight (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48–1.00) were associated with lower odds of persistent high non-HDL cholesterol.ConclusionsPatterns of non-HDL cholesterol are identified during early childhood, and family history of high cholesterol was associated most strongly with persistent high non-HDL cholesterol. Future research should inform the development of a clinical prediction tool for lipids in early childhood to identify children who may benefit from interventions to promote cardiovascular health.

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