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To determine whether tight glycemic control of neonatal hyperglycemia changes neurodevelopment, growth, and metabolism at school age.Children born very low birth weight and randomized as hyperglycemic neonates to a trial of tight vs standard glycemic control were assessed at 7 years corrected age, including Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, visual and neurologic examinations, growth measures, dual X-ray absorptiometry, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was survival without neurodevelopmental impairment at age 7 years. Outcomes were compared using linear regression, adjusted for sex, small for gestational age, birth plurality, and the clustering of twins. Data are reported as number (%) or mean (SD).Of the 88 infants randomized, 11 (13%) had died and 57 (74% of eligible children) were assessed at corrected age 7 years. Survival without neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 25 of 68 children (37%), with no significant difference between tight (14 of 35; 40%) and standard (11 of 33; 33%) glycemic control groups (P = .60). Children in the tight group were shorter than those in the standard group (121.3 [6.3] cm vs 125.1 [5.4] cm; P < .05), but had similar weight and head circumference. Children in the tight group had greater height-adjusted lean mass (18.7 [0.3] vs 17.6 [0.2] kg; P < .01) and lower fasting glucose concentrations (84.6 [6.30] vs 90.0 [5.6] mg·dL−1; P < .05), but no other differences in measures of body composition or insulin-glucose metabolism.Tight glycemic control for neonatal hyperglycemia does not change survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, but reduces height, increases height-adjusted lean mass, and reduces fasting blood glucose concentrations at school age.ACTRN: 12606000270516.