Long-Term Outcomes of Hyperglycemic Preterm Infants Randomized to Tight Glycemic Control

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Abstract

Objective

To determine whether tight glycemic control of neonatal hyperglycemia changes neurodevelopment, growth, and metabolism at school age.

Study design

Children born very low birth weight and randomized as hyperglycemic neonates to a trial of tight vs standard glycemic control were assessed at 7 years corrected age, including Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, visual and neurologic examinations, growth measures, dual X-ray absorptiometry, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The primary outcome was survival without neurodevelopmental impairment at age 7 years. Outcomes were compared using linear regression, adjusted for sex, small for gestational age, birth plurality, and the clustering of twins. Data are reported as number (%) or mean (SD).

Results

Of the 88 infants randomized, 11 (13%) had died and 57 (74% of eligible children) were assessed at corrected age 7 years. Survival without neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 25 of 68 children (37%), with no significant difference between tight (14 of 35; 40%) and standard (11 of 33; 33%) glycemic control groups (P = .60). Children in the tight group were shorter than those in the standard group (121.3 [6.3] cm vs 125.1 [5.4] cm; P < .05), but had similar weight and head circumference. Children in the tight group had greater height-adjusted lean mass (18.7 [0.3] vs 17.6 [0.2] kg; P < .01) and lower fasting glucose concentrations (84.6 [6.30] vs 90.0 [5.6] mg·dL−1; P < .05), but no other differences in measures of body composition or insulin-glucose metabolism.

Conclusion

Tight glycemic control for neonatal hyperglycemia does not change survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, but reduces height, increases height-adjusted lean mass, and reduces fasting blood glucose concentrations at school age.

Trial registration

ACTRN: 12606000270516.

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