Association of Health Insurance Status and Vaccination Coverage among Adolescents 13–17 Years of Age

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Abstract

Objective

To assess selected vaccination coverage among adolescents by health insurance status and other access-to-care characteristics.

Study design

The 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen data were used to assess vaccination coverage disparities among adolescents by health insurance status and other access-to-care variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and a predictive marginal modeling were conducted to evaluate associations between health insurance status and vaccination coverage.

Results

Overall, vaccination coverage was significantly lower among uninsured compared with insured adolescents for all vaccines assessed for except ≥3 doses of human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) among male adolescents. Among adolescents 13–17 years of age, vaccination of uninsured compared with insured adolescents, respectively, for tetanus toxoid, reduced content diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine was 77.4% vs 86.8%; for ≥1 dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine was 72.9% vs 81.7%; for ≥1 dose of HPV was 38.8% vs 50.2% among male and 42.9% vs 63.8% among female adolescents; for 3 doses of HPV was 24.9% vs 42.8% among female adolescents. In addition, vaccination coverage differed by the following: type of insurance among insured adolescents, having a well-child visit at 11–12 years of age, and number of healthcare provider contacts in the past year. Uninsured were less likely than insured adolescents to be vaccinated for HPV (female: ≥1 dose and 3 doses; and male: ≥1 doses) after adjusting for confounding variables.

Conclusions

Overall, vaccination coverage was lower among uninsured adolescents. HPV vaccination coverage was lower than tetanus toxoid, reduced content diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine Tdap and meningococcal conjugate vaccine in both insured and uninsured adolescents. Wider implementation of effective evidence-based strategies is needed to help improve vaccination coverage among adolescents, particularly for those who are uninsured. Limitation of current federally funded vaccination programs or access to healthcare would be expected to erode vaccine coverage of adolescents.

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